Officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia, Australia is the largest country of Oceania. It's the sixth biggest country on Earth in terms of physical size, covering an area of 2,969,907 square miles (7,692,024 square km) and has an estimated population of just over 25 million. Australia is made up of the Australian mainland, the island of Tasmania, and several other smaller islands.

Australia was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years until the arrival of British settlers in the 1700s. The British initially established a penal colony on the area known as New South Wales, later colonizing other parts of Australia through the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Commonwealth of Australia was formed on January 1, 1901, effectively giving the nation independent status. The capital city of Australia is Canberra, but its largest and best-known city is Sydney. Here are some overviews and statistics for the largest cities of Australia. CDC information for travelers. Hours/availability may have changed.


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Sydney is the state capital of the New South Wales Region, situated in the southeastern part of Australia. Sydney is the largest city in Australia, covering an area of 4,775.2 square miles (12,367.7 square km) and having an estimated population of 5.1 million. Sydney is also one of the oldest Australian cities, being founded in 1788 as a penal colony and named after Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney, a British politician.

This city is known for being one of the most-visited locations in all of Australia, with millions of visitors flocking to Sydney from all around the world to visit monuments and locations like the Sydney Opera House and the oldest library in the nation. This city is also home to more than 2.5 million acres of parks and reserves.

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2.Cities in Australia: Melbourne

Cities in Australia: Melbourne
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Melbourne is the capital of the state of Victoria, which is located in the southeastern part of Australia, on the southern shore. After Sydney, Melbourne is the second largest city in Australia, covering an area of 3,858.1 square miles (9,992.5 square km) and having an estimated population of 5 million.

Melbourne was founded in 1835 and named William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, who was Prime Minister of Great Britain at the time. Melbourne was a key location for the British Empire, being known as 'Marvelous Melbourne' and transformed into one of the wealthiest and most developed areas in the country. In modern times, Melbourne is seen as the main cultural hub of Australia.

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3.Cities in Australia: Brisbane

Cities in Australia: Brisbane
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Brisbane is the capital of the state of Queensland on the eastern coast of Australia and is the third largest city in the country. Built on the Brisbane River, the city covers an area 6,116.6 square miles (15,842 square km) and has an estimated population of 2.4 million. The city was named after Sir Thomas Brisbane, who served as the Governor of New South Wales for several years in the 1820s.

Brisbane is one of the older major cities of Australia and is well-known as a major business and touristic center for the country, attracting many visitors for its unique architecture and historical sites, as well as many beautiful beaches and popular resort locations.

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4.Cities in Australia: Perth

Cities in Australia: Perth
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Perth is the capital city of the state of Western Australia and is the fourth biggest city in the country. As the name of the state suggests, this city is located in the western part of the country. Perth covers an area of 2,478 square miles (6,417.9 square km) and has an estimated population of 2 million.

The city of Perth was founded in 1829 by Captain James Stirling and became a city in 1856. It was named after a city of the same name in Scotland. Perth is a major touristic location and has close links with Mandurah, another major city in Western Australia; these two cities have formed one large conurbation in recent years, but are still classed as separate urban entities.

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5.Cities in Australia: Adelaide

Cities in Australia: Adelaide
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Adelaide is the capital of the state of South Australia, situated in the south-central part of the mainland. Adelaide is the fifth biggest city in all of Australia, covering an area of 1,257.8 square miles (3,257.7 square km). It has an estimated population of 1.3 million and has the unique distinction of being home to more than 77% of all South Australia citizens.

Adelaide was named after Adelaide of Saxe Meiningen, the wife of King William IV of the United Kingdom. Whenever cities are ranked in terms of quality of life, Adelaide often breaks into the top 10 and is classed as one of the best cities in Australia in which to live and work.

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5 of the Largest Cities in Australia

More Ideas: Ayers Rock

The Ayers Rock Resort is a full service, all-encompassing experience for adventurous travelers as well as families looking for a unique vacation spot. Take a tour, try a new culinary experience, or even ride in a helicopter high above the resort. Tourism arrived in that part of the Bush in the 1950s, led by visitors who were seeking more information about the Indigenous people in a more interactive way.


The first campground was opened in 1983, followed by a hotel in 1984. After many million-dollar updates to the resort, it now welcomes up to half a million guests every year with its unique combination of fun, education, and culture. An Indigenous Land Corporation and they now manage it are constantly seeking expansion opportunities as well as additional experiences for the many guests who vacation there every year.

Permanent Attractions

The core of the attractiveness of the resort is the many different tours and adventures offered there, which fall into a variety of categories.

· Food experiences- The resort offers tourist foodie experiences, meant for every palate. One of the more popular is the “Bush” food experience, which lasts about 45 minutes and teaches visitors about the food that is native to Australia including seasonal fruits, spices, and seeds. Guests will be led by a knowledgeable tour guide that will speak about the Indigenous people and how they survive in the “Bush.” A traditional recipe will also be demonstrated, and guests will get to taste the finished product.

· Wildlife experiences- The two most popular wildlife experiences at the resort have to do with camels and reptiles! There are multiple camel experiences, including express rides that are great for those with children and camel rides during both sunrise and sunset (experience the beautiful sunrises and sunsets in one of the most unique ways possible). There are also two different reptile shows (one in the morning and one in the afternoon), introducing visitors to the many different types of reptiles at the resort in an up close and personal way.

· Air adventures- Although they can be expensive, the resort offers a few helicopter packages that allow the more adventurous guests to see the resort from a bird's-eye perspective. Take an 8-minute, 15-minute, 25 minutes, or 36-minute ride (some are even offered at sunset or nighttime).

· Cultural experiences- Guests seeking to learn more about the culture of Australia should take one of the cultural tours. Many of them are even offered free of charge, like the garden walk and the cultural theater. Those who want to go more in-depth should check out the “SEIT” Uluru tour, which teaches guests about the native creation story, the rock paintings, and more. These tours are not recommended for guests younger than the age of 5.

· Lifetime experiences- When money is not an option, the resort offers experiences that are considered “once in a lifetime.” One of the favorites is the canyon day tour, where a knowledgeable tour guide leads visitors through the Kings Canyon to see the tropical oasis located deep within. It truly is an experience that cannot be paralleled anywhere else on Earth and it is absolutely breathtaking.

Special Events

There are many special events and festivals held at the resort, all throughout the year.

March brings the Uluru Festival, a festival that celebrates the culinary heritage of the Aboriginal people. Take a cooking masterclass, enjoy a three-course dining experience under the stars, and learn about how to incorporate indigenous cooking techniques into every recipe that can be made at home.

April is home to both the Tjungu (a local Indigenous people) festival as well as a yoga retreat, which allows for a diverse experience for guests who are interested in one or the other (or even both!)

In July, the resort is host to the Outback Marathon, where people from all over the country come to run one of the toughest marathons in the region.

There are also wellness retreats, astrology festivals, music festivals, and more! Check the website for an updated calendar that includes days and additional costs, as well as more detailed information.

Dining and Shopping

There are many, award winning restaurant and dining opportunities available on the resort, like the Mayu Wiru restaurant, the outdoor Sounds of Silence, and even simple coffee houses and quick dining experiences. Each is unique in its own way and connects diners with the culinary history of the Bush. There are also a variety of shopping experiences for guests who want to take home a piece of their time at the resort, like art, apparel, and even spa services.

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More Ideas: Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria

The Royal Botanic Gardens in Australia allow visitors the chance to walk through and learn about a huge variety of native flora and fauna in an engaging and interactive manner. Spend the day, even have a picnic, while taking in the stunning beauty of the Australian outdoors.


The gardens were established by Lieutenant La Trobe in 1846. Over 60 years, the gardens were taken from simple swamplands to the stunning gardens they are today - even getting their official “royal” designation from the Queen Elizabeth the Second in 1958. They have undergone many changes in that time, adding and expanding through the goals of the director of the gardens.

Permanent Exhibits

Melbourne Gardens:

· Guilfoyle’s Volcano- Built originally in 1876 to store the water for the gardens, the “volcano” was unused for over 60 years before being restored. It now offers beautiful, one of a kind views of the city from the top of the historic reservoir, as well as displaying the low water usage plants.

· Children’s Garden- The garden was built to allow younger visitors to get their hands dirty while learning. It has a variety of special features - Ruin Garden, Bamboo Forest, Plant Tunnel, and more - all meant to cater to the youngest guests.

· Melbourne Observatory- Although not technically part of the gardens, the observatory allows the gardens and the Astronomical Society (of Victoria) to work together and provide guests with this unique experience. The only way to see the inside is to take a tour of the facility, which are offered regularly.

· Garden Highlights- Besides those listed above, visitors should also make sure to see all the various lakes and islands located at the gardens (Fern Gully, Ornamental Lake, etc). Other highlights include the rain garden (Canna Bed - uses polluted runoff storm water to water the gardens, after it is filtered) and the gates (Nareeb, Observatory, etc).

· Plant Collections / Fauna- There are over 30 different plant collections on display, from beautiful perennials to huge trees, which are arranged according to category/grouping. There are also many different species of local, native fauna - like birds, turtles, eels, foxes, and many more. Keep an eye out!

Cranbourne Gardens-

· Garden Highlights- Make sure to find the viewing points located throughout the garden, which point out photo ops! Follow the walking trails, which lead guests through all of the many highlights.

· Australian Garden- This immersive display focuses on art, architecture, flora, and landscaping native to Australia. It also teaches guests how to use native plants in their own gardens. The garden is broken down into multiple exhibition gardens that teach guests about the way the landscape, plants and people in Australia are all connected.

· Bushland- View native Australian bushland, as well as species that have been designated rare and even endangered! Take one of the walking trails through this mostly untouched bushland area, or even bring a bicycle and try one of the cycling tracks!

· Plant Collections / Fauna- There are also a huge variety of plant collections, arranged by grouping/category as well as many native faunae like snakes, birds, and frogs.

Educational Opportunities

Both Melbourne and Cranbourne gardens are a great resource for teachers who want to get their students out into nature and study in a more interactive and hands-on way. With programs that stretch from early childhood education, through primary, secondary, and tertiary school age, there is something for every specific lesson plan and goal. Each program has been hand designed by educators to allow for a student-centered approach, which includes lessons, story time, crafts, and more. Sessions run just over 100 minutes (running between 10am and 12:30pm) and do require a small cost per child, or a group cost for the entire class. Adults and teachers are admitted free. Reservations are required ahead of time and can be made by calling the garden educators directly at 03 9252 2358.

There are also vacation programs for when students are out of school. These programs are designed to keep children educationally engaged while school is closed, as well as providing options for home schooled children. Programs vary depending on which garden, as does cost.

Dining and Shopping

Located at Cranbourne is a picnic area, which provides space in the bushland for visiting families to stop and have a picnic. Free trolleys are available. On site are pavilions with hot plates and picnic tables that can be used without reservation. For visitors who want to take a piece of their visit home, the Garden shops allow them to bring home household goods, art, and gardening supplies. This also helps benefit the gardens and allows them to care for the grounds financially.

Corner of Ballarto Rd and Botanic Drive, Cranbourne, Victoria 3977, Phone: +61-3-59-90-22-00

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More Ideas: Ball's Pyramid

Taking its name from Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball, who on the same trip discovered Lord Howe Island, which lies around 20 kilometers northwest, Balls Pyramid is not technically a pyramid, at least in the sense that it is not manmade. It is in fact an erosional remnant, part of a volcano that is around 6.5 million years old. The formation measures in at 562 meters tall, 1,100 meters long, and 300 meters across, and it is the single tallest volcanic formation or stack on Earth and well worth your interest.

The first attempted ascent of the pyramid was made by a Sydney-based team in 1964. Dick Smith tried to scale the formation with participants from the Scout Movement; unfortunately, they had to give it up on day five when supplies ran short. The first documented successful ascent was made by climbers of the Sydney Rock Climbing Club in 1965. Consisting of Jack Pettiegrew, Bryden Allen, David Witham, and John Davis, they now hold the prestigious claim of quite likely being the first humans to stand atop the peak. In 1979 Dick Smith went back to successfully crest the summit and place the New South Wales flag atop the peak to officially claim the island as Australian territory.

In 1982 climbing was forbidden on the pyramid after changes in the Lord Howe Island Act. In 1986 even visitation was banned. These policies were relaxed in 1990 and you can now apply to visit or climb the pyramid under strict supervision. This didn’t stop two eager climbers, however, who back in 2014 decided to yacht to the island and attempt a one-day race to the peak without the proper authorization.

The reason the pyramid is so fiercely protected is that it is believed to be the last existing place you can find the Lord Howe Island stick insect. The species was thought to be extinct after its last sighting in 1920 on Lord Howe Island. It wasn’t until the 1964 ascent unearthed a deceased specimen that scientists reasoned that there may still be a surviving colony on Balls Pyramid. Subsequent trips to the pyramid continued to provide more carcasses, but it wasn’t until 2001 when a team of conservationists and entomologists visited the site that they discovered living examples of the species. They were found to inhabit the area underneath a Melaleuca howeana shrub about 100 meters up the pyramid, which was only roughly 6 by 30 meters in size. It was an incredibly small population of only 24 insects, 2 of which were removed and taken back to Australia. They have now been bred successfully with the aim of reintroducing the species to Lord Howe Island. Another population of the insects was spotted at a higher location amongst a sedge thicket during the unauthorized ascent in 2014. This confirms that the insects are a little less confined than first believed.

Whilst you will need to apply for permission to climb the pyramid, there are tours operating regularly that take tourists to see the breathtaking sight up close and personal. It rises from the water so severely that it is quite daunting as it towers into the sky. It is an ancient formation with a rich and important scientific and geological history and well worth the boat trip.

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